Ocean exploration, undersea remote sensing of marine life
and geophysical phenomena, census of marine life, ocean acoustic hurricane
classification, Europa ice sheet fracture mechanics and seismics, wave
propagation and scattering theory in remote sensing through random media
and waveguides, statistical estimation and information theory in sensing,
linear and nonlinear acoustics and seismics.
OAWRS 2006 Gulf of Maine Experiment Marine Mammal Acoustics
Thousands of whale vocalizations were recorded during the OAWRS
2006 Gulf of Maine Experiment. Hundreds of Humpback whale
vocalizations were recorded each day. The OAWRS towed array
was used to passively locate the whales, most of which were
found to be near the northern flank of Georges Bank. Preliminary
results are presented at the Fall 2010 Meeting of the Acoustical
Society of America in
"Simultaneous passive and active detection and localization of humpback whales
using data recorded on a towed horizontal receiving array"
- Zheng Gong, Duong Tran, Hari Chauhan, Nicholas Makris and Purnima Ratilal
"Developing a matched-filter kernel for localization of complex sources in a
dispersive ocean waveguide with array invariance"
- Duong Tran, Hari Chauhan, Zheng Gong, Nicholas Makris and Purnima Ratilal
| Current Graduate Students:
|| Ankita D. Jain, Wenjun Zhang, Dong Hoon Yi, Byung-Gu Cho
||2.065, 2.066 Acoustic Sensing
2.06J Mechanical Vibration
13.851 Fundamentals and Applications of Underwater Sound
13.015J Mechanical Systems, Signal Processing, and Stochastics
13.A15 Acoustical Oceanography
||PhD in Ocean Engineering, MIT 1991,
SB in Physics, MIT 1983.
||Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC, 1991-1997
Honors and Awards:
- NASA Group Achievement Award to Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Science Definition
- Doherty Professor of Ocean Utilization
- Edgerly Fellow
- Secretary of the Navy/Chief of Naval Operations
Scholar of Oceanographic Sciences
- Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America
- ONR Young Investigator
- Alan Berman Outstanding Publication Award, NRL
- A. B. Wood Medal, Institute of Acoustics, UK
- Navy Special Act Award
- MIT Nautical Association Service Award
- Comodore MIT Nautical Association
Selected Journal Papers:
(** indicates papers with Makris’ students)
- S. Jagannathan, Elizabeth T. Kusel, Purnima Ratilal and N. C. Makris, "Scattering from extended targets in range-dependent fluctuating ocean-waveguides with clutter from theory and experiments", J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132 (2), 680-693, August 2012.
- N.C. Makris, "New Sonar Technology Reveals City-size Schools of Fish Low-frequency sound waves improve ocean sensing", IEEE Spectrum Feature Article, August 2011. http://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/new-sonar-technology-reveals-citysize-schools-of-fish/0
- I. Bertsatos and N.C. Makris, "Estimating the instantaneous velocity of randomly moving target swarms in a stratified ocean waveguide by Doppler analysis" J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 84, 2011. **
- N.C. Makris and I. Bertsatos, "Resolving Lambertian surface orientation from fluctuating radiance", J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 1222, 2011.
- ** S. Jagannathan, B.K. Horn, P. Ratilal, N.C. Makris, "Force estimation and prediction from time-varying density images", IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell. 2011 June 33(6) 1132-46. (highlighted paper)
- **M. Zanolin, S. Vitale, N. C. Makris, "Application of asymptotic expansions for maximum likelihood estimators errors to gravitational waves from binary mergers: The single interferometer case," Phys. Rev. D 81, 124048 (2010) [16 pages]
- **I. Bertsatos and N. C. Makris, "Statistical biases and errors inherent in photoclinometric surface slope estimation with natural light," Icarus 208, 798-810 (2010).
- ** N.C. Makris, S. Jagannathan, and A. Ignisca, “Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing: Visualizing Life Around Seamounts,” Oceanography Vol. 23, No. 1, March 2010, Special Issue on Mountains in the Sea.
- **I. Bertsatos, M. Zanolin, T.R. Chen, P. Ratilal, N.C. Makris, "General second order covariance of Gaussian Maximum Likelihood Estimate applied to passive source localization in a fluctuating ocean waveguide,"J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, 2635-2651 (2010).
- **Z. Gong, M. Andrews, S. Jagannathan, R. Patel, J. M. Jech, N. C. Makris,
P. Ratilal, “Low-frequency target strength and abundance of shoaling
Atlantic herring Clupea harengus in the Gulf of Maine during the Ocean Acoustic
Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) 2006 Experiment” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
127, 104-123 (2010).
- **S. Jagannathan, I. Bertsatos, D. Symonds, T. Chen, H. T. Nia, A.
Jain, M. Andrews, Z. Gong, R. Nero, L. Ngor, M. Jech, O. R. Godø,
S. Lee, P. Ratilal, Nicholas Makris, “Ocean Acoustics Waveguide Remote
Sensing (OAWRS) of marine ecosystems,” Marine Ecology Progress Series,
Vol. 395, 137-160 (2009).
C. Makris, Purnima Ratilal, Srinivasan Jagannathan, Zheng Gong, Mark Andrews,
Ioannis Bertsatos, Olav Rune Godoe, Redwood W. Nero, J. Michael Jech, "Critical
Population Density Triggers Rapid Formation of Vast Oceanic Fish Shoals",
Science, Vol. 323, No. 5922, 1734-1737 (March 27, 2009).(This link includes
- ** T. Chen, P. Ratilal, N. C. Makris, "Temporal coherence after multiple
forward scattering through random three-dimensional inhomogeneities in an
ocean waveguide," J. Acoust. Soc. Am.124, 2812-2822
- J. D. Wilson and N. C. Makris, "Quantifying hurricane destructive power,
wind speed, and air-sea material exchange with natural undersea sound,"
Geophysical Research Letters 35, L10603 1-5 (2008)
- M. Betke, D. E. Hirsh, N. C. Makris, G. F. McCracken, M. Procopio, N. I.
Hristov, S. Tang, A. Bagchi, J. Reichard, J. Horn, S. Crampton, C. J. Cleveland,
and T. H. Kunz,"Thermal Imaging Reveals Significantly Smaller Brazilian
Free-tailed Bat Colonies than Previously Estimated." Journal of Mammalogy,
89(1):18-24, February 2008
- A. Galinde, N. Donabed, S. Lee, N. C. Makris, and P. Ratilal, "Range-dependent
waveguide scattering model calibrated for bottom reverberation in continental
shelf environments" J. Acoust. Soc. Am 123, 1270-1281 (2008)
N.C. Makris, P. Ratilal, D. Symonds, S. Jagannathan, S. Lee, R. Nero, “Fish
population and behavior revealed by instantaneous continental-shelf-scale
imaging,” Science, Volume 311, 660-663 (February 3, 2006). (This link
- **J. D. Wilson and N.C. Makris, “Ocean Acoustic Hurricane Classification,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 168-181 (2006).
- **S. Lee and N.C. Makris, “The array invariant,” J. Acoust.
Soc. Am. 119, 336-351 (2006).
- **P. Ratilal and N.C. Makris, “Mean and covariance of the forward
field propagated through a stratified ocean waveguide with three-dimensional
inhomogeneities,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 3560-3574 (2005).
- **T.R. Chen, P. Ratilal and N.C. Makris, “Mean and variance of the
forward field propagated through three-dimensional random internal waves in
a continental-shelf waveguide,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 3532-3559 (2005).
- **S. Lee, B. Pappalardo, N.C. Makris, “Mechanics of tidally induced
fractures in Europa's ice shell,” Icarus 177, 367-379 (2005).
- **Ratilal et al and N.C. Makris, “Long range remote imaging of the
continental shelf environment: The Acoustic Clutter Reconnaissance Experiment
2001 Experiment,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 1977-1998 (2005).
- **M. Zanolin, I. Ingram, A. Thode, N. C. Makris, “Asymptotic accuracy
of geoacoustic inversions” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 2031-2042 (2004)
- **S. Lee, M. Zanolin, A. Thode, R. Pappalardo, N.C. Makris, “Probing
Europa’s Interior with Natural Sound Sources,” Icarus 165, 144-167
- **Yisan Lai and N. C. Makris, “Spectral and modal formulations for
the Doppler-shifted field scattered from an object moving in a stratified
medium,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 223-244 (2003).
- **A. Thode, M. Zanolin, E. Naftali, I. Ingram, P. Ratilal and N. C. Makris, “Necessary
conditions for a maximum likelihood estimate to become asymptotically unbiased
and attain the Cramer-Rao lower bound Part II: Range and depth localization
of a sound source in an ocean waveguide,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112,
- **P. Ratilal, Y. Lai and N. C. Makris, “Validity of the sonar equation
and Babinet’s principle for scattering in a stratified medium,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 1797-1816 (2002).
- **P. Ratilal and N. C. Makris, “Extinction theorem for object scattering
in a stratified medium,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2924-2945 (2001).
- **E. Naftali and N. C. Makris, “Necessary conditions for a maximum
likelihood estimate to become asymptotically unbiased and attain the Cramer-Rao
lower bound, Part I: General approach with an application to time-delay and
Doppler shift estimation,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.110, 1917-1930 (2001).
- M. Betke and N. C. Makris, “Recognition, resolution and complexity
of objects subject to affine transformation,” International Journal
of Computer Vision 44, 5-40 (2001).
- **N. C. Makris and P. Ratilal, “A unified model for reverberation
and submerged object scattering in a stratified ocean waveguide,” J.
Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 909-941 (2001).
- **C. S. Chia, L., N. C. Makris and T. Fialkowski, “A comparison of
bi-static scattering from two geologically distinct abyssal hills,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2053-2070 (2000)
- **N. C. Makris, C. S. Chia, L. T. Fialkowski, “The bi-azimuthal scattering
distribution of an abyssal hill,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 2491-2512
- N. C. Makris, “A spectral approach to 3-D object scattering in stratified
media applied to scattering from submerged spheres,” J. Acoust. Soc.
Am. 104, 2105-2113 (1998).
- N. C. Makris, “The effect of saturated transmission scintillation
on ocean-acoustic intensity measurements,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100,
- N. C. Makris, “Parameter resolution bounds that depend on sample size,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 2851-2861 (1996).
- N. C. Makris, “A foundation for logarithmic measures of fluctuating
intensity in pattern recognition,” Optics Letters 20, 2012-2014 (1995).
- N. C. Makris, L. Avelino, R. Menis, “Deterministic reverberation from
ocean ridges,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 3547-3574 (1995). (Also appears
in full in a special volume commemorating ONR's 50th Anniversary.)
- N. C. Makris, F. Ingenito and W. A. Kuperman, “Detection of a submerged
object insonified by surface noise in an ocean waveguide,” J. Acoust.
Soc. Am. 96, 1703-1724 (1994).
- M. D. Collins, N. C. Makris and L. T. Fialkowski, “Noise-cancellation
and source localization,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1773-1776 (1994).
- N. C. Makris and J. M. Berkson, “Long-range backscatter from the Mid-Atlantic
Ridge,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 1865-1881 (1994).
- N. C. Makris, “Imaging ocean-basin reverberation via inversion,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 983-993 (1993).
- M. D. Collins, J. M. Berkson, W. A. Kuperman, N. C. Makris, and J. S. Perkins,
“Applications of optimal time-domain beamforming,” J. Acoust.
Soc. Am. 93, 1851-1865 (1993).
- N. C. Makris and I. Dyer, “Environmental correlates of arctic ice
edge noise,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 3288-3298 (1990).
- N. C. Makris and I. Dyer, “Environmental correlates of pack ice noise,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79, 1434-1440 (1986).
Selected Refereed Conference Papers:
- M. Betke, E. Naftali and N. C. Makris, "Necessary Conditions to Attain
Performance Bounds on Structure and Motion Estimates of Rigid Objects,"
Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conference
CVPR 2001, Kauai, Hawaii, December 2001.
- M. Betke and N. Makris, "Information-Conserving Object Recognition." Proceedings
of the Sixth International Conference on Computer Vision, pp. 145-152, Bombay,
India, January 1998. Also, UMD-CfAR-TR-858.
- N. C. Makris,"The Statistics of Ocean-Acoustic
Ambient Noise," in Sea Surface Sound '97, edited by T. Leighton, Kluwer
Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1997).
- N. C. Makris, "Estimating surface orientation from sonar images," in High
Frequency Acoustics in Shallow Water, edited by N.G. Pace, Kluwer, Dordrecht
- N. C. Makris, "Statistical ocean-acoustics in shallow water," Proceedings
of the First International Conference on Shallow Water Acoustics, Beijing
China ( 1997).
- N. C. Makris, "A foundation for logarithmic measures of fluctuating intensity
in ocean-acoustics," A.B. Wood Memorial Lecture, Proceedings of the Institute
of Acoustics 15, Nottingham, UK (1996).
- M. Betke and N. C. Makris, "Fast Object Recognition in Noisy Images Using
Simulated Annealing." Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on
Computer Vision, pp. 523-530, June 1995 Also, MIT-AI-Memo-1510.